Cause analysis of fire and explosion accidents in

2022-08-26
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Cause analysis of fire and explosion accidents in the maintenance of chemical equipment

the fire risk in the maintenance of chemical equipment is large, and careless operation or violation of operating procedures are very likely to cause fire and explosion accidents. Statistics show that the accidents occurred in domestic and foreign chemical enterprises account for a large proportion of the accidents that occurred in the parking and maintenance operations or in the operation of emergency repair operations. It is of great significance to analyze and discuss the types of fire and explosion accidents in chemical maintenance operations and do a good job in fire safety management

1 close type of chemical equipment maintenance

equipment maintenance can be divided into planned maintenance and unscheduled maintenance

1.1 planned maintenance

the plan is made according to the experimental mechanical experience and equipment condition of the pipe servo electromechanical reverse removal of the production equipment, and the maintenance carried out according to the plan is called planned maintenance. According to different maintenance contents, cycles and requirements, planned maintenance can be divided into minor maintenance, medium maintenance and overhaul

1.2 unscheduled maintenance refers to the sudden failure or accident during the operation of the equipment, which must be maintained without shutdown or shutdown. This kind of maintenance is difficult to predict in advance, so it is impossible to arrange the maintenance plan, and it requires short maintenance time, high maintenance quality, complex maintenance environment and working conditions, which is quite difficult

2 characteristics of chemical equipment maintenance

2.1 frequent chemical maintenance operations

chemical production has the characteristics of high temperature, high pressure and strong corrosion, so chemical equipment, pipelines, valves, instruments, etc. are prone to corrosion and wear during operation. There are many times of planned and unplanned maintenance of chemical equipment, and the task is heavy. According to the survey, most synthetic ammonia plants have to be overhauled once a month and overhauled once a year. Chemical enterprises generally carry out overhaul once a year, and some carry out overhaul twice a year or once a few years

2.2 complex chemical maintenance

equipment used in petrochemical production, such as furnaces, towers, kettles, appliances, machines, pumps, machines, tanks, pools, etc., are mostly non stereotyped equipment, with a wide variety of specifications; There are many kinds and large quantities of instruments, pipelines, valves, etc., with different structures and performances; There are many maintenance contents, tight construction period and many types of work; The maintenance is limited by the environment, climate and site. Some operations need to be carried out in the open air, sometimes in the upper, middle and lower interchanges, and sometimes in the inside and outside of the equipment at the same time

2.3 high accident rate of chemical maintenance

complex production devices and equipment, inflammable, explosive, toxic, harmful and corrosive spring remaining in equipment and pipelines, diameter: 150mm; The overhaul operation is frequent and cannot be separated from hot work. A little negligence will lead to accidents such as fire explosion, poisoning and chemical burns. Experience shows that production plants are most prone to accidents during shutdown, maintenance, construction and resumption of work. According to statistics, among the major accidents in Sinopec, the accidents in the maintenance process accounted for 42.63% of the total

3 analysis of the causes of fire and explosion accidents in the maintenance of chemical equipment

3.1 the fire safety system is not perfect

equipment maintenance, whether it is overhaul or minor repair, planned maintenance or unplanned maintenance, must strictly abide by the rules and regulations of maintenance work, such as parking, maintenance, start-up safety measures, work ticket approval system, safety monitoring system. In addition to the safety measures such as hot work and operation in equipment that have been formulated by the enterprise, it should also put forward franchise supplementary fire prevention requirements for the specific maintenance work content and scope, and clarify the maintenance work procedures. Entering the construction site, "defense rate: 0.001mm" refers to the safety discipline that takes mm as the unit, can show its number until the third digit after the decimal point, and the fourth digit after the decimal point cannot show its number, The safety department is responsible for the publicity, mobilization, inspection and supervision of safety regulations

some chemical enterprises have imperfect fire safety systems for maintenance. Some enterprises only have safety regulations for hot work and operation in equipment, and there are no special fire prevention regulations for the content and scope of maintenance operations, and the construction requirements are not clear; Some enterprises even have no regulations on blind plate extraction, replacement and cleaning during maintenance. In the maintenance process, if the management is not good, the external wall insulation materials are pushed to the cusp of the storm, and the operation is wrong, it is easy to cause fire and explosion accidents

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